الرئيسية / المكتبة القانونية / تاريخ بدء مهنة المحاماة

تاريخ بدء مهنة المحاماة

ظهرت المحاماة كمهنة لها قواعد وأصول لأول مرة في اثينا باليونان وهي مدرسة المحاماة الأولى ثم عرفت روما المحاماة ولم تكن مهنة المحاماة محصورة في عمل واحد بل مقسمة الى شقين وفق طبيعة كل عمل فهناك المشورة القانونية وهي للفقية وهناك المرافة وهي للخطيب .
عرف العصر الجاهلى قبل الاسلام نظام يسمى( بالحجاجا ًأو حجيجاً ) كان اذا وقع نزاع بين بين رجلين جاز لكل منهما أن يوكل عنه حجاجا وكانت صيغة الوكالة هي أن يقول الموكل لوكيله : وضعت لساني في فمك لتحج عني .
جاء الإسلام ، ليسود حكم الله تعالى ، بعد أن كان السيف والرمح هو فيصل النزاعات. وفي سبيل هذا عين رسول الله صلى عليه وسلم قضاة على أمصار الدولة الإسلامية للعمل بكتاب الله وسنة رسول الله ” ص “. ولا ريب إن الوكالة بالخصومة نشأت تبعاً لذلك فقد صح إن علياً قد وكل عقيلاً في الخصومات لأنه كان ذكياً حاضر الجواب و بعدما أسن عقيلاً وكل عبد لله بن جعفر الطيار وكان شاباً سريع البديهية وكان الإمام علي رضي الله عنهُ يقول : ” ما قضي لوكيلي فلي , وما قضي على وكيلي فعلي ” .
ومن هنا نشأت بذور المحاماة في الإسلام مع نشوء القضاء وفرض أحكام الشريعة على الجميع . وظل نظام الوكالة على ما هو عليه من غير تنظيم حتى عام 1846 م حيث اسست جامعة في الآستانة ضمت معهداً عرف بمكتب الحقوق الشاهاني ، اشترط العثمانيون فيمـن يرغب بمزاولة مهنة المحاماة أن يكون من حاملي شهادة مكتب الحقوق العثماني ذاك ، ويحسن اللغة العثمانية قراءة وكتابة.

طبيعة عمل المحامي تقوم على الإنابة القانونية ، حيث يقوم بعرض وجهة نظر موكله في خصومته، سواء أمام جهات القضاء المختلفة او دوائر الشرطة او هيئات التحكيم او الجهات الإدارية المختلفة ، ومن جهة أخرى فهو يعاون القضاء في سبيل الوصول إلى الحقيقة والتطبيق الصحيح للقانون من خلال حضوره جلسات التحقيق والمحاكمة وإبداء دفوعه القانونية وأوجه دفاعه الشكلية والموضوعية حول النزاع المطروح، فطبيعة عمل المحامي هي الوكالة والوكالة لا تشترط غياب الأصيل دوما ولكن الوكالة تنسحب أيضا إلى الوكالة في الحديث عن الأصيل الحاضر في مجلس الخصومة.

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